The present age is an age of machines,and we see machines in every walk of life,specialization and large scale production have resulted mainly due to extensive use of machinery.In the past,man used only simple tools to plough the land or sow and harvest his crops.He had simply bullocks and ordinary ploughs to cultivate his land.But these days we have big machines like tractors,harvesters etc,which are used in the work of cultivation of crops.Machines are also used extensively for manufacturing articles like cloth,shoes,cycles,cars,television etc etc,on a very large scale.Now-a-days,most of the machines are either automatic or semiautomatic,because of which they have been of great help in relieving man from the strenuous and tiring work and in producing goods on a large scale.
The extensive use of machines is known as mechanization.In modern times,the economic strength of a country is measured with the degree of her mechanization.Mechanization has now revolutionized the total economic set-u of the society,it has led to the resent system of large scale production.Today,machines are used not only in work of production or manufacturing,but they are also used for our household purposes.In our homes,now,we have sewing machines,washing machines,knitting machines etc,etc.In the resent day world,machines are used extensively.It is because they have rovided many advantages to workers,roducers and the community as a whole.The following are the chief advantages of machinery.-
1.Control over nature.-With the help of machinery,it has become possible to harness the various forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.Man has leveled undulating land for cultivation,generated hydro-electricity from water-falls,exploited mines for minerals,all these things have been done by him with the help of machinery.
2.Conquest over time and space.-With the help of machines the work is now done very speedily.Before the advent of machines,a weaver could weave only a few meters of cloth in a day,but today with the help of machines,thousands of meters of cloth can be woven in a day.Machines have helped to travel for a long distance in a short time.Modern means of transport and communication have enabled to travel thousands of kilometers in a day.Man can now communicate his message to a person thousands of kilometers away from him with a push of a button.This has been possible only because of machines.
3.Relief from monotonous heavy work.-Machines like cranes and hydraulic presses,have given relief to labourers.These machines can perform very heavy and difficult tasks,which are beyond the physical power of ordinary labourers.Some works,such as spinning,weaving etc,are very monotonous to the workers.With the help of machines such types of monotonous works can be undertaken by the workers with out any hesitation.Thus,machines have given a great relief to workers from heavy and monotonous jobs.
4.Delicate and more accurate work.-With the help of machines,it is now easy to undertake a delicate work.Sinning of very fine silk yarn or making of tiny arts of a watch are very delicate jobs.The manufacture of these delicate things is not possible with out the use of machines.Besides,machines also make possible to manufacture thousands of articles of identical shape and size.It is only because of machines we can have thousands of pictures,photos,fashion articles etc,of exactly the same nature.
5.Relief from risky and dirty jobs.-Some jobs are very risky,while some other are very dirty.Ordinary workers either have no courage to do these jobs or they hesitate or disagree to do them because of social prestige.Such jobs can easily be undertaken with the help of machines.For instance breaking stones,cutting of glass are risky jobs,but with the help of machines these jobs can be undertaken very easily.In the same way,the removal and disposal of night-soil is a very dirty work,and the workers or sweepers take these jobs very unpleasantly and disagreeably,such dirty jobs are now undertaken with the help of machines in many advanced countries of the world.
6.Large-scale production.-With the help of machines,most of the things to-day are produced on a very large scale,due to which the society is able to reap all the advantages of large scale production.