All the economic activity of a country is the result of two fundamental bases.
Since the economic development of a country depends largely upon its natural resources,we can think of the scope of the economic development of a country by her natural resources.By natural resources we mean the gifts of nature,which include land,water resources,fisheries,mineral resources,forests climate,soil etc.The natural resources of a country are fixed in quantity.They cannot be increased or decreased.A good number of natural resources like relief,climate,several kinds of soils and vegetation,water resources etc,are well known to man,but there are plenty of other natural resources about which man has no proper knowledge even now.For instance,inside the earth,there are many types of minerals.Though we know some of these minerals,we do not have the complete knowledge about the location of these minerals hidden inside the earth.Man however,always makes efforts to discover the natural resources more and more,he also discover new methods to explore them and to use them in various ways.
One more aspect of natural resources is that some natural resources can be used again and again,while some others are used up once and for all.Those natural resources,which can be used again and again are known as Renewable Natural Resources,Land,water,fisheries,forests etc,are good examples of renewable resources.The natural resources,which can be used up only once and for all and can be exhausted,are known as Non-renewable or exhaustible Natural Resources.Coal,iron-ore,copper and different other minerals and mineral oil are the good examples of non-renewable natural resources.Ma should utilize non-renewable natural resources economically,and carefully,since they can be exhausted in future.Man should use renewable natural resources properly and fully.
One more important point regarding natural resources is that they are inactive factors ie,they,themselves,cannot make any effort in producing anything.They are,therefore,called the passive factor of production.The natural resources of a country,therefore,require their exploitation and use by scientific and human efforts.
In order to understand the economic structure of a country in a proper way,it is very essential to study its natural resources ( geographical factors )thoroughly.without knowing their details,it is quite impossible to determine the possibility of its economic development.